Lysosomes Overview, Types and Morphology



They contain about 45 enzymes that are grouped in to six main categories:

  • Nucleases – Nucleases are important enzymes that hydrolyze nucleic acids. Nucleases are divided in to deoxyribonuclease (acts on DNA) and ribonuclease which hydrolyses RNA. Hydrolysis action on nucleic acids results in the production of sugars, nitrogen bases as well as phosphates.
  • Proteases – Proteases includes enzymes like collagenase and peptidases that acts on proteins converting them to amino acids
  • Glycosidases – Glycosidases like beta galactosidase act on the glycosidic bonds of polysaccharides converting polysaccharides to monosaccharides. For instance, the enzyme galactosidase acts on such bonds converting lactose to glucose and galactose.
  • Phosphatases – Good examples of Phosphatases are acid phosphodiesterases. These are important enzymes that act on organic compounds releaing phosphate in the process. However, the compound has to have a phosphate group.
  • Lipases – Lipases include esterases and phospholipiases that act on lipids to produce acids and alcohol
  • Sulphatases – Sulphatases are enzymes that act on organic compounds to release sulphates